We investigated the nature of the ground state and static response properties (mu, alpha, and beta) for a promising class of twisted pi-electron system nonlinear optical chromophores at the HF, B3LYP, MP2, and CASSCF levels. We report results for a substituted twisted ethylene and a larger tictoid analogue. Previous work has reported only a zwitterionic character for such tictoid species, however, (14,13) CASSCF calculations predict a ground-state diradical. At the HF, B3LYP, MP2, and (14,13) CASSCF levels, the values of beta are orders of magnitude smaller than those predicted by semiempirical methods.
The influence of rotational and geometrical isomerism on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, specifically the first-order hyperpolarizability beta, of chromophores of current interest has been investigated with density functional theory (DFT). In the first of this two-part study, the rotational isomerism of a linear chromophore was explored. Calculation of the torsion potentials about two of the rotatable and conformation-changing single bonds in a chromophore demonstrated the near equality of the molecular energies at 0 degrees and 180 degrees rotational angles. To explore the consequences of this near conformational energy degeneracy to NLO behavior, the eight low energy rotational isomers of FTC [Robinson, B. H.; et al. Chem. Phys. 1999, 245, 35] were investigated. This study provides the first-reported DFT-based calculation of the statistical mechanical average of beta over the conformational space of a molecule having substantial nonlinear optical behavior. The influence of the solvent reaction field on rotameric populations and on the beta tensor is reported. In the second part, two molecules having two donors and two acceptors bonded respectively in ortho and meta positions on a central benzene ring are shown to have substantially different beta tensors. These two so-called molecular Xs have different highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) distributions, and consistent with expectations, it is found that the larger beta(zzz) is associated with a large spatial asymmetry between the HOMOs and LUMOs. Large hyperpolarizability correlates with the HOMO concentrated on the donor groups and the LUMO on the acceptor groups.
The optical rotatory power of achiral crystals of achiral pentaerythritol molecules was measured. The maximum rotations were found to be +/-6 degrees /mm. The quantum mechanically computed rotation of pentaerythritol molecules using linear response theory was 6 times larger although the experimental and theoretical tensors were similarly oriented to within 5 degrees .
High-level electronic structure calculations have been used to study the factors contributing to the barriers to degenerate hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) reactions. Understanding of these reactions is a prerequisite to the development of any more general theory of HAT reactions, and yet, the existing models for such reactions perform quite poorly when applied to even simple self-exchanges. The reasons behind these failures are elucidated in the present work. They include a near cancellation of bond-strength effects between reactant and transition state, as well as a strong dependence of the geometry of the transition state on the nature of the heavy atoms.
Aromatic Möbius [4n]annulenes with 4n pi electrons, originally conceived by Heilbronner, are characterized computationally. These (CH)(12), (CH)(16), and (CH)(20) minima have nearly equal C-C bond lengths, small twist angles around the rings, and magnetic properties (NICS, nucleus-independent chemical shifts–see above at various positions in annulene–and magnetic susceptibility exaltations) indicating significantly diatropic ring currents. The Möbius forms are not the most stable isomers but may contribute significantly to the chemistry of these annulenes. [structure: see text]